Many emerging technologies implicate U.S. government military, intelligence or foreign policy concerns.  Because of this, many of them are described in existing U.S. export control lists. For those not already described in the lists, the U.S. Government gets a second bite at the apple through the recently revised U.S. Munitions List (“USML”) Category XXI and the new 0Y521 Commerce Control List Export Control Classification Number (“ECCN”) series.  The new controls are much broader and open ended than previous catchalls on emerging technologies, presenting unique compliance risks. They also reduce the certainty necessary to cost-benefit analyses of international investment and collaborations in emerging technologies.  Legal assistance in assessing the these risks can address compliance risks and increase certainty in these areas.